Glossary of Terms
Ancient semi-natural woodland - Woodland, which is, known to have existed before 1600.
Biodiversity is short for 'biological diversity’. It describes the whole variety of life on Earth and includes all the world’s animals, plants and the natural systems in which they live.
Bole – The main trunk of a pollard.
Bolling – The permanent trunk and stubs of a pollard consisting of the knuckle and the bole. Sometimes used for the knuckle alone.
Coppicing – The process of cutting an area of trees near ground level and allowing them to regenerate from the stool. Trees, which are regularly coppiced, also have a distinctive shape - a large stool close to ground level with a great many shoots.
Deadwood – Wood that no longer fulfils any function for the tree. It may be still attached or have fallen from the tree.
Endophytic fungi - Fungi living within plant tissue without causing overt disease.
Epiphyte – A plant or lichen growing on a plant.
Habitat – The place where a plant or animal lives.
Heartwood – dead or predominantly dead wood in the centre of the tree.
High Forest – Mature tall trees where the canopy is normally closed.
Knuckle – The top of the bole on a pollard. The point where branches have been repeatedly cut back which has become swollen.
Lapsed pollard – A pollard that has not been cut for many years.
Local Nature Reserves (LNRs) are for both people and wildlife. They are intended to be places that can be enjoyed and where people can have contact with nature. They can also be places where people can study and learn about nature.
Local Wildlife Sites are “a discrete area of land which is considered to be of significance for its wildlife features in at least a District/Borough/ Unitary Authority context”. LWS were identified and declared by the Essex Wildlife Trust following a phase one-habitat survey of the District in 1991 (revised 1996 and 1998). Formerly know as Sites of Importance for Nature Conservation (SINCs), County Wildlife Sites and Wildlife Sites. The Epping Forest District has 181 Wildlife Sites. That breaks down into 118 Woodlands, 39 grasslands, 19 mosaic sites and 5 fresh water aquatic.
Nationally Notable is a species that occurs within the range of 16 to 100 modern 10km grid squares across the UK.
Pollard – A tree that has been cut once or has had regular cutting at a height above which grazing animals can reach i.e. between 2 - 4 metres. Pollards are characterised by its distinctive shape - a large trunk (or bole) from which commonly radiate numerous smaller branches.
Secondary Woodland – wood that has developed on land that at sometime in the past was not wooded.
Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) represent the UK’s best sites for wildlife and geology. Over half, by area, are internationally important and many play an important part in local culture and economies. Notification as a SSSI is primarily a legal mechanism to protect sites that are of particular conservation interest because of the wildlife they support, or because of the geological features that are found there.
Stool – A tree that has been coppiced also refers to the part of the tree, which is left uncut.
The red data book (Rdb) lists species whose continued existence is threatened. Rdb species are classified into different categories of perceived risk. Each Rdb usually deals with a specific group of animals or plants (e. reptiles, insects, mosses). They are now being published in many different countries.
Veteran trees - "a tree that is of interest biologically, culturally or aesthetically because of its age, size or condition." Normally over 250 years old with a girth at breast height of over 3 metres. However, other factors must be considered such as the location and past management of the Tree.
Wildwood – Collective term given to natural forests which colonised the land after the last ice age.
Wood-pasture – The practice of using the land for both trees and for grazing animals. The trees were usually managed by pollarding.
Woodland ride – an often straight pathway within a wood, traditionally 6 – 9m in width. Often ditched and drained to allows access for (traditional) vehicles year round.
For more details contact Epping Forest Countrycare at Countrycare@eppingforestdc.gov.uk or ring 01992 788203.
An exhibition will be held at the Epping Forest District Museum, Waltham Abbey at the end of the competition in the late Summer of 2007. Dates will be announced as soon as they are available.
Competition entries close April 2006, but nominations will are still wanted for your favourite trees so continue to register your trees when ever you wish. although these will no longer be eligable for the competition they will still be published on this web site to ensure that it continues to grow and attract attention.
To enter your nomination online now.click here